آموزش رایگان زبان

حال کامل ساده و استمراری در زبان انگلیسی

در این درس به آموزش حال کامل ساده و استمراری در زبان انگلیسی می‌پردازیم. تفاوت دو جمله زیر را می‌دانید؟

We’ve painted the room و We’ve been painting the room

به مثال‌‌های زیر که با  present perfect simple و continuous  ساخته شده‌اند نگاه کنید:

We’ve painted the bathroom. 
She’s been training for a half-marathon.
I’ve had three coffees already today!
They’ve been waiting for hours.

توضیحات گرامر

از هر دو حالت present perfect simple (have or has + past participle) و present perfect continuous (have or has + been + -ing form)  در مورد عملی که از گذشته شروع شده است و تا زمان حال ادامه پیدا کرده است استفاده می‌کنیم.

Focusing on result or activity

present perfect simple معمولاً به نوعی بر نتیجه فعالیت تمرکز می کند و present perfect continuous به نوعی بر خود فعالیت تمرکز دارد.

Present perfect simple Present perfect continuous
Focuses on the result Focuses on the activity
You’ve cleaned the bathroom! It looks lovely! I’ve been gardening. It’s so nice out there.
Says ‘how many’ Says ‘how long’
She’s read ten books this summer. She’s been reading that book all day.
Describes a completed action Describes an activity which may continue
I’ve written you an email.  I’ve been writing emails.
When we can see evidence of recent activity
The grass looks wet. Has it been raining?
I know, I’m really red. I’ve been running!

Ongoing states and actions

اغلب از forsince و how long به همراه present perfect simple برای بیان طول مدت رخ دادن عملی استفاده می‌کنیم.

How long have you known each other?
We’ve known each other since we were at school. 

اغلب از forsince و how long به همراه present perfect continuous برای صحبت کردن در مورد اقدامات مداوم یا مکرر استفاده می‌شود.

How long have they been playing tennis?
They’ve been playing tennis for an hour.
They’ve been playing tennis every Sunday for years.

بعضی اوقات present perfect continuous می‌تواند به یک موقعیت موقتی تاکید کند.

I usually go to the gym on the High Street, but it’s closed for repairs at the moment so I’ve been going to the one in the shopping centre.