آموزش رایگان زبان

گرامر نقل قول (statements) در زبان انگلیسی

در این درس به آموزش گرامر نقل قول (statements) در زبان انگلیسی می‌پردازیم.آیا می‌دانید چطور گفته‌های شخص دیگر را بازگو کنید.

به مثال‌های زیر نگاه کنید:

direct speech: ‘I love the Toy Story films,’ she said.
indirect speech: She said she loved the Toy Story films.

direct speech: ‘I worked as a waiter before becoming a chef,’ he said.
indirect speech: He said he’d worked as a waiter before becoming a chef.

direct speech: ‘I’ll phone you tomorrow,’ he said.
indirect speech: He said he’d phone me the next day.

توضیحات گرامر

در توضیح گرامر نقل قول (statements) در زبان انگلیسی باید گفت، Reported speech زمانی است که به شخصی گفته‌های شخص دیگری را بگوییم. برای این کار می‌توانیم از گفتار مستقیم (direct speech) یا گفتار غیرمستقیم (indirect speech) استفاده کنیم.

direct speech: ‘I work in a bank,’ said Daniel.
indirect speech: Daniel said that he worked in a bank.

در نقل قول غیرمستقیم برای ریپورت کردن بخش‌هایی از جمله Original تغییر می‌کند. در خیلی از موارد، Tense جمله یک مرحله به عقب برمی‌گردد. مثلا حال ساده تبدیل به گذشته ساده می‌شود.همینطور ممکن است که ضمیر جمله نیز تغییر کند.

Present simple, present continuous and present perfect

زمانی که ما از تغییر زمان فعل استفاده کنیم،  present simple تبدیل به past simple, present continuous تبدیل به past continuous و present perfect تبدیل به  past perfect میشود.

‘I travel a lot in my job.’

  • Jamila said that she travelled a lot in her job.

‘The baby’s sleeping!’

  • He told me the baby was sleeping.

‘I’ve hurt my leg.’

  • She said she’d hurt her leg.

Past simple and past continuous

زمان past simple معمولا تغییر پیدا می‌کند به  past perfect simple و past continuous معمولا تبدیل به  past perfect continuous می‌شود.

We lived in China for five years.’

  • She told me they’d lived in China for five years.

‘It was raining all day.’

  • He told me it had been raining all day.

Past perfect

past perfect تغییر نمی‌کند

No backshift

اگر آنچه گوینده گفته هنوز درست یا مرتبط است ، تغییر زمان همیشه ضروری نیست. این حالت ممکن است زمانی اتفاق بیفتد که گوینده از یک زمان حال استفاده کرده باشد.

‘I go to the gym next to your house.’

  • Jenny told me that she goes to the gym next to my house. I’m thinking about going with her.

‘I’m working in Italy for the next six months.’

  • He told me he’s working in Italy for the next six months. Maybe I should visit him!

‘I’ve broken my arm!’

  • She said she’s broken her arm, so she won’t be at work this week.

Pronouns, demonstratives and adverbs of time and place

ضمیرها نیز معمولاً در گفتار غیرمستقیم تغییر می‌کنند.

‘I enjoy working in my garden,’ said Bob.

  • Bob said that he enjoyed working in his garden.

‘We played tennis for our school,’ said Alina.

  • Alina told me they’d played tennis for their school.

در ضمن ، اگر شما شخص یا یکی از افرادی هستید که صحبت می‌کنید ، ضمایر تغییر نمی‌کنند.

‘I’m working on my thesis,’ I said.

  • I told her that I was working on my thesis.

‘We want our jobs back!’ we said.

  • We said that we wanted our jobs back.

ما همچنین مثال‌ها و قید زمان و مکان را اگر آن‌ها دیگر دقیق نباشند تغییر می‌دهیم .

‘This is my house.’

  • He said this was his house. [You are currently in front of the house.]
  • He said that was his house. [You are not currently in front of the house.]

‘We like it here.’

  • She told me they like it here. [You are currently in the place they like.]
  • She told me they like it there. [You are not in the place they like.]

‘I’m planning to do it today.’

  • She told me she’s planning to do it today. [It is currently still the same day.]
  • She told me she was planning to do it that day. [It is not the same day any more.]

به همین ترتیب ، these  تبدیل به those و now تبدیل به then و yesterday تبدیل به the day before و tomorrow تیدبل به next/following day و ago تبدیل به before می‌شود.